Glossary

A component of work performed during the course of a project. SEE ALSO Schedule Activity
The point in time at which work actually ended on the schedule activity. SEE ALSO Actual Finish Date
The point in time at which work actually began on the schedule activity. Activity Actual Duration. The total number of work periods in calendar units between the activity actual start date of the schedule activity and either the data date of the project schedule, if the schedule activity is in progress, or the activity actual finish date, if the schedule activity is complete. SEE ALSO Actual Duration
Multiple attributes associated with each schedule activity that can be included within the activity list. Activity attributes include activity codes, predecessor activities, successor activities, logical relationships, leads and lags, resource requirements, imposed dates, constraints, and assumptions.
The point in time associated with the completion of the schedule activity in an approved project schedule baseline. SEE ALSO Activity Current Finish Date
The total number of work periods in calendar units between the activity baseline start date and activity baseline finish date of a schedule activity as determined by its approved project schedule baseline.
The point in time associated with the beginning of the schedule activity in an approved project schedule baseline. SEE ALSO Activity Current Start Date
A graphic object used to display schedule activity data in accordance with schedule network logic.
Usually the project calendar, or other specifically defined calendar from the calendar library, assigned to the schedule activity which defines the work periods and non-work periods in calendar format. The activity calendar, on the schedule activities to which it is assigned, is used to replace the project calendar during schedule network analysis. SEE ALSO Calendar Library
One or more numerical or text values that identify characteristics of the work or in some way categorize the schedule activity that allows filtering and ordering of activities within reports.
The estimated cost of the schedule activity that includes the cost of all resources required to perform and complete the activity, including all cost types and cost components.
A table of dates and their associated cumulative probabilities of occurrence for schedule activity completion. Dates are derived using analytical techniques such as Monte Carlo calculations. When applied to the project end date, the value is equivalent to the Project Cumulative Probability Risk Distribution.
The current estimate of the point in time when the schedule activity will be completed, where the estimate reflects any reported work progress. SEE ALSO Activity Scheduled Finish Date; Activity Baseline Finish Date; Current Finish Date
The current estimate of the point in time when the schedule activity will begin, where the estimate reflects any reported work progress. SEE ALSO Activity Scheduled Start Date, Activity Baseline Start Date, and Current Start Date
A short phrase or label for each schedule activity, used in conjunction with an activity identifier to differentiate a project schedule activity from other schedule activities. The activity description normally identifies the scope of work of the schedule activity. Sometimes also known as activity name or activity title.
The process of identifying the specific schedule activities that need to be performed to produce the various project deliverables.
The process of estimating the number of work periods that will be needed to complete individual schedule activities.
The total number of work periods, in calendar units, between the activity early start date and the activity early finish date of a schedule activity. SEE ALSO Duration (DU or DUR)
An estimate, expressed as the percentage that the activity actual duration is of the activity total duration for a schedule activity that has work in progress.
A quantifiable deviation, departure, or divergence away from a given duration for a schedule activity.
A component of work performed during the course of a project. SEE ALSO Schedule Activity
A date constraint placed on both the activity early and late finish dates of an in-progress schedule activity that affects when the schedule activity can be scheduled for completion and is usually in the form of a fixed imposed date. This constraint requires the activity remaining duration to be set equal to the difference between the activity expected finish date and the data date to force the schedule activity to be scheduled to finish upon the imposed date.
The earliest possible point in time when the uncompleted portion of the schedule activity can be completed. SEE ALSO Early Finish Date
The earliest possible point in time when the schedule activity can begin. SEE ALSO Early Start Date
A point in time associated with the completion of a schedule activity in a project. Usually qualified by one of the following: actual, baseline, current, early, expected, late, mandatory, scheduled, or target. SEE ALSO Finish Date
A project team member-selected set of schedule activities, sharing some common activity attribute that allows the activities to be grouped and reported or displayed separately, such as being divided in a graphic display from other activities with a horizontal line.
A short unique numeric or text identification assigned to each schedule activity to differentiate that project activity from other activities. Typically unique within any one project schedule network diagram.
A short phrase or label for each schedule activity used in conjunction with an activity identifier to differentiate that project schedule activity from other schedule activities. The activity description normally describes the scope of work of the schedule activity.
The latest possible point in time when the schedule activity can be completed without violating a schedule constraint or delaying the project end date. SEE ALSO Late Finish Date
The latest possible point in time when the schedule activity can begin without violating a schedule constraint or delaying the project end date. SEE ALSO Late Start Date
A documented tabulation of schedule activities that shows the activity description, activity identifier, and a sufficiently detailed activity scope definition for the work so project team members understand what work is to be performed. The list may have additional activity attributes.
A finish date constraint placed on a schedule activity that sets both the activity early and late finish dates equal to a fixed imposed date and thereby also constrains the early start dates of the network paths logically following that schedule activity.
A start date constraint placed on a schedule activity that sets both the activity early and late start dates equal to a fixed imposed date and thereby also constrains the late finish date of the network paths logically preceding that schedule activity.
SEE activity description.
SEE Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM)
SEE Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)
The activity duration originally assigned to a schedule activity and not updated as progress is reported on the activity. Typically used for comparison with activity actual duration and activity remaining duration when reporting schedule progress. Normally developed by reliance on historic data, specialists, resource availability, financial considerations, and volume of work to be performed. May also be called planned duration.
An estimate, expressed as a percent, of the amount of work that has been completed on a schedule activity, measured in terms of either physical work progress or by means of the earning rules of earned value management.
SEE Activity Scheduled Finish Date
SEE Activity Scheduled Start Date
The total number of work periods in calendar units, (a) equal to the original duration for an activity that has not started or (b) between the data date of the project schedule and the early finish date of a schedule activity that has an activity actual start date. This represents the time needed to complete a schedule activity where the work is in progress. SEE ALSO Remaining Duration
The process of estimating the types and quantities of resources required to perform each schedule activity.
The point in time associated with the activity scheduled finish date of a resource limited schedule activity in a resource-limited schedule.
The point in time associated with the activity scheduled start date of a resource limited schedule activity in a resource-limited schedule.
The probability that the schedule activity will be on a critical path.
The point in time when work was scheduled to complete on a schedule activity. The activity schedule finish date is normally within the range of dates delimited by the activity early finish date and the activity late finish date. It may reflect resource leveling of scarce resources. Sometimes called activity planned finish date. SEE ALSO Activity Current Finish Date, Scheduled Finish Date
The point in time when work was scheduled to begin on a schedule activity. The activity schedule start date is normally within the range of dates delimited by the activity early start date and the activity late start date. It may reflect resource leveling of scarce resources. Sometimes called activity planned start date. SEE ALSO Activity Current Start Date, Scheduled Start Date
Documented narrative describing the work represented by the activity.
The process of identifying and documenting dependencies among schedule activities.
A point in time associated with the beginning of the schedule activity in a project. Usually qualified by one of the following: actual, baseline, current, early, late, scheduled, or target. SEE ALSO Start Date Activity Target Date Variance. A quantifiable deviation, departure, or divergence away from a known activity target start date or activity target finish date.
The estimated total number of work periods in calendar units, needed to complete the schedule activity as determined by a specific project target schedule.
A point in time established by schedule network analysis for completion of a schedule activity within a specific version of the project schedule.
A point in time established by schedule network analysis for beginning the schedule activity within a specific version of the project schedule. Activity Title. SEE Activity Description
The total number of work periods in calendar units to complete a schedule activity. For schedule activities in progress, it includes the activity actual duration plus the activity remaining duration
A categorization designation that differentiates the discrete schedule activities that have different functions within the schedule model, such as, milestone, task, summary, level-of-effort, and dummy.
Total costs actually incurred and recorded in accomplishing work performed during a given time period for a schedule activity or work breakdown structure component. Actual cost can sometimes be direct labor hours alone, direct costs alone, or all costs including indirect costs. Also referred to as the actual cost of work performed (ACWP). (SEE ALSO, Earned Value Technique (EVT)
The time in calendar units between the actual start date of the schedule activity and either the data date of the project schedule if the schedule activity is in progress or the actual finish date if the schedule activity is complete. SEE ALSO Activity Actual Duration and Project Actual Duration
The point in time when work actually ended on a schedule activity. (Note: In some application areas, the schedule activity is considered ‘‘finished’’ when work is ‘‘substantially complete.’’) SEE ALSO Activity Actual Finish Date And Project Actual Finish Date
SEE Activity Actual Start Date and Project Actual Start Date
The point in time when work actually ended on a schedule activity. (Note: In some application areas, the schedule activity is considered ‘‘finished’’ when work is ‘‘substantially complete.’’)
The point in time when work actually started on a schedule activity.
A category of projects that have common components significant in such projects, but are not needed or present in all projects. Application areas are usually defined in terms of either the product (i.e., by similar technologies or production methods) or the type of customer (i.e., internal versus external, government versus commercial) or industry sector (i.e., utilities, automotive, aerospace, information technologies). Application areas can overlap.
The act of formally confirming, sanctioning, ratifying, or agreeing to something.
The graphic presentation of a schedule activity in the arrow diagramming method or a logical relationship between schedule activities in the precedence diagramming method.
A schedule network diagramming technique in which schedule activities are represented by arrows. The tail of the arrow represents the start, and the head represents the finish of the schedule activity. (The length of the arrow does not represent the expected duration of the schedule activity.) Schedule activities are connected at points called nodes (usually drawn as small circles) to illustrate the sequence in which the schedule activities are expected to be performed. SEE ALSO Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)
SEE Data Date (DD).
Assumptions are factors that, for planning purposes, are considered to be true, real, or certain without proof or demonstration. Assumptions affect all aspects of project planning, and are part of the progressive elaboration of the project. Project teams frequently identify, document, and validate assumptions as part of their planning process. Assumptions generally involve a degree of risk.
The originator, publisher, or responsible party of a document, such as a schedule, estimate, or analysis.
The calculation of late finish dates and late start dates for the uncompleted portions of all schedule activities. Determined by working backwards through the schedule network logic from the project’s end date. The end date may be calculated in a forward pass or set by the customer or sponsor. SEE ALSO Schedule Network Analysis
A rectangular shaped graphical display object used to represent the occurrence of a data component in a document, such as, a schedule activity in a bar chart whose length is determined by the activity start and end dates corresponding to the timescale used for the bar chart. Bars can overlap or be displayed side by side to indicate progress or baselines.
A graphic display of schedule-related information. In the typical bar chart, schedule activities or work breakdown structure components are listed down the left side of the chart, dates are shown across the top, and activity durations are shown as dateplaced horizontal bars. Also called a Gantt chart.
The approved time phased plan (for a project, a work breakdown structure component, a work package, or a schedule activity), plus or minus approved project scope, cost, schedule, and technical changes. Generally refers to the current baseline, but may refer to the original or some other baseline. Usually used with a modifier (e.g., cost baseline, schedule baseline, performance measurement baseline, technical baseline). SEE ALSO Performance Measurement Baseline
The date on which the current baseline was established. Sometimes used with a modifier such as, project schedule, project scope, or project cost.
SEE Activity Baseline Duration and Project Baseline Duration
SEE Activity Baseline Finish Date and Project Baseline Finish Date
SEE Activity Baseline Start Date and Project Baseline Start Date
The approved estimate for the project or any work breakdown structure component or any schedule activity. SEE ALSO Estimate Budgeted Cost of Work Performed (BCWP). SEE Earned Value (EV)
A table or register of dates containing the days of each month and week in one or more years. In project management, each date may be identified as a time span for performing work (work period) or as a time span for not performing work including designated holidays (non-work period) and each date may be further subdivided into segments such as shifts, hours, or even minutes that may be designated as work periods or non-work periods. Usually used with a modifier such as, activity, fiscal year, Gregorian, project, program, or resource.
A set of calendars that can be applied to the various schedule activities and resources. SEE ALSO Activity Calendar and Resource Calendar. Calendar Unit. The smallest unit of time used in scheduling the project. Calendar units are generally in hours, days, or weeks, but can also be in quarter years, months, shifts, or even in minutes.
Identifying, documenting, approving or rejecting, and controlling changes to the project baseline.
A constituent part, element, or piece of a complex whole.
The state, quality, or sense of being restricted to a given course of action or inaction. An applicable restriction or limitation, either internal or external to the project, that will affect the performance of the project or a process. For example, a schedule constraint is any limitation or restraint placed on the project schedule that affects when a schedule activity can be scheduled and is usually in the form of fixed imposed dates. A cost constraint is any limitation or restraint placed on the project budget such as funds available over time. A project resource constraint is any limitation or restraint placed on resource usage, such as what resource skills or disciplines are available and the amount of a given resource available during a specified time frame.
Comparing actual performance with planned performance, analyzing variances, assessing trends to effect process improvements, evaluating possible alternatives, and recommending appropriate corrective action as needed.
A management control point where scope, budget (resource plans), actual cost, and schedule are integrated and compared to earned value for performance measurement. Control accounts are placed at selected management points (specific components at selected levels) of the work breakdown structure. Each control account may include one or more work packages, but each work package may be associated with only one control account. Each control account is associated with a specific single organizational component in the organizational breakdown structure (OBS). Previously called a
SEE ALSO Work Package
Documented direction for executing the project work to bring expected future performance of the project work in line with the project management plan.
The monetary value or price of a project activity or component that includes the monetary worth of the resources required to perform and complete the activity or component, or to produce the component. A specific cost can be composed of a combination of cost components including direct labor hours, other direct costs, indirect labor hours, other indirect costs, and purchased price. (However, in the earned value management methodology, in some instances, the term cost can represent only labor hours without conversion to monetary worth.) SEE ALSO Actual Cost (AC), Estimate
A subdivision of the cost such as, direct cost, indirect cost, and fee.
A component of the cost such as, labor cost, equipment cost, and material cost.
A specific type of project schedule compression technique performed by taking action to decrease the total project schedule duration after analyzing a number of alternatives to determine how to get the maximum schedule duration compression for the least additional cost. Typical approaches for crashing a schedule include reducing schedule activity durations and increasing the assignment of resources on schedule activities. SEE ALSO Fast Tracking, Schedule Compression
Standards, rules, or tests on which a judgment or decision can be based, or by which a product, service, result, or process can be evaluated.
Any schedule activity on a critical path in a project schedule. Most commonly determined by using the critical path method. Although some activities are ‘‘critical,’’ in the dictionary sense, without being on the critical path, this meaning is seldom used in the project context.
A schedule network analysis technique that modifies the project schedule to account for limited resources. The critical chain method mixes deterministic and probabilistic approaches to schedule network analysis.
Generally, but not always, the sequence of schedule activities that determines the duration of the project. Generally, it is the longest path through the project. However, a critical path can end, as an example, on a schedule milestone that is in the middle of the project schedule and that has a finish-no-later-than imposed date schedule constraint. SEE ALSO Project Critical Path, Specified Critical Path, and Critical Path Method
A schedule network analysis technique used to determine the amount of scheduling flexibility (the amount of float) on various logical network paths in the project schedule network, and to determine the minimum total project duration. Early start and finish dates are calculated by means of a forward pass, using a specified start date. Late start and finish dates are calculated by means of a backward pass, starting from a specified completion date, which sometimes is the project early finish date determined during the forward pass calculation. SEE ALSO Critical Path
The current estimate of the point in time when a schedule activity will be completed, where the estimate reflects any reported work progress. SEEALSO Scheduled Finish Date, Activity Current Finish Date, and Project Current Finish Date
The current estimate of the point in time when a schedule activity will begin, where the estimate reflects any reported work progress. SEE ALSO Scheduled Start Date and Baseline Start Date, Activity Current Start Date, and Project Current Start Date
The person or organization that will use the project’s product or service or result. SEE ALSO User
The date through which the project status and progress were last determined and reported for analyses, such as scheduling and performance measurements. It is the last past historical date. Sometimes called As-of-Date
Vertical line from top to bottom of a graphical report such as a bar chart showing the data date in relationship to the timescale and bars.
A term representing the day, month, and year of a calendar, and, in some instances, the time of day.
SEE Decomposition
A planning technique that subdivides the project scope and project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components, until the project work, associated with accomplishing the project scope and providing the deliverables, is defined in sufficient detail to support executing, monitoring, and controlling the work.
Any unique and verifiable product, result, or capability to perform a service that must be produced to complete a process, phase, or project. Often used more narrowly in reference to an external deliverable, which is a deliverable that is subject to approval by the project sponsor or customer. SEE ALSO Product, Result, Service
SEE Logical Relationship
A field of work requiring specific knowledge and that has a set of rules governing work conduct (e.g., mechanical engineering, computer programming, cost estimating, etc.).
A medium and the information recorded thereon, that generally has permanence and can be read by a person or a machine. Examples include project management plans, specifications, procedures, studies, and manuals.
Resources that are considered to have a direct impact on activity duration during resource leveling.
The total number of work periods (not including holidays or other nonworking periods) required to complete a schedule activity or work breakdown structure component or project. Usually expressed as work-hours, workdays or workweeks. Sometimes incorrectly equated with elapsed time. Contrast with effort. SEE ALSO Activity Duration and Project Duration
SEE Activity Duration Percent Complete and Project Duration Percent Complete
SEE Activity Duration Variance and Project Duration Variance
In the critical path method, the earliest possible point in time on which the uncompleted portions of a schedule activity (or the project) can finish, based on the schedule network logic, the data date, and any schedule constraints. Early finish dates can change as the project progresses and as changes are made to the project management plan. SEE ALSO Activity Early Finish Date and Project Early Finish Date
In the critical path method, the earliest possible point in time on which the uncompleted portions of a schedule activity (or the project) can start, based on the schedule network logic, the data date, and any schedule constraints. Early start dates can change as the project progresses and as changes are made to the project management plan. SEE ALSO Activity Early Start Date and Project Early Start Date
The value of work performed expressed in terms of the approved budget assigned to that work for a schedule activity or work breakdown structure component. Also referred to as the budgeted cost of work performed (BCWP).
A specific technique for measuring the performance of work for a work breakdown structure component, control account, or project. Also referred to as the earning rules and crediting method. SEE ALSO Actual Cost, Estimate at Completion (EAC), and Estimate to Completion (EVC)
The number of labor units required to complete a schedule activity or work breakdown structure component. Usually expressed as staff hours, staff days, or staff weeks. Contrast with Duration.
A company, business, firm, partnership, corporation, or governmental agency.
A quantitative assessment of the likely amount or outcome. Usually applied to project costs, resources, effort, and durations and is usually preceded by a modifier (i.e., preliminary, conceptual, feasibility, order-of-magnitude, definitive). It should always include some indication of accuracy (e.g., x percent).
The expected total cost of a schedule activity, a work breakdown structure component, or the project when the defined scope of work will be completed. EAC is equal to the actual cost (AC) plus the estimate to complete (ETC) for all of the remaining work. EAC AC plus ETC. The EAC may be calculated based on performance to date or estimated by the project team based on other factors, in which case it is often referred to as the latest revised estimate. SEE ALSO Earned Value Technique (EVT), Estimate to Complete (ETC)
The expected cost needed to complete all the remaining work for a schedule activity, work breakdown structure component, or the project. SEE ALSO Earned Value Technique (EVT), Estimate at Completion (EAC) Fast Tracking (Technique). A specific project schedule compression technique that changes network logic to overlap phases that would normally be done in sequence, such as the design phase and construction phase, or to perform schedule activities in parallel. SEE ALSO Crashing, Schedule Compression
A point in time associated with a schedule activity’s completion. Usually qualified by one of the following: actual, baseline, current, early, estimated, late, planned, scheduled, or target. SEE ALSO Activity Finish Date and Project Finish Date
A schedule constraint placed on the schedule activity that affects when a schedule activity can be scheduled and is usually in the form of a fixed imposed date. A Finish Not Earlier Than constraint prevents the activity from being scheduled to finish earlier than the imposed date. Not Earlier Than constraints impact only the forward pass calculation and hence the early dates of a schedule activity.
A schedule constraint placed on the schedule activity that affects when a schedule activity can be scheduled and is usually in the form of a fixed imposed date. A Finish Not Later Than constraint prevents the activity from being scheduled to finish later than the imposed date. Not Later Than constraints impact only the backward pass calculation and hence the late dates of a schedule activity.
A schedule constraint placed on the schedule activity that affects when a schedule activity can be scheduled and is usually in the form of a fixed imposed date. A Finish On constraint prevents the activity from being scheduled to finish earlier as well as later than the imposed date. Finish On constraints are a combination of a Not Earlier Than and
These impact both the forward and the backward pass calculation and hence both early and late dates. This causes the schedule activity to have a zero total float while its predecessors and successors may have different total float values.
The logical relationship where completion of work of the successor activity cannot finish until the completion of work of the predecessor activity. SEE ALSO Logical Relationship
The logical relationship where initiation of work of the successor activity depends upon the completion of work of the predecessor activity. SEE ALSO Logical Relationship
Also called slack. SEE ALSO Free Float (FF), Total Float (TF)
Estimates or predictions of conditions and events in the project’s future based on information and knowledge available at the time of the forecast. Forecasts are updated and reissued based on work performance information provided as the project is executed. The information is based on the project’s past performance and expected future performance, and includes information that could impact the project in the future, such as estimate at completion and estimate to complete.
The calculation of the early start and early finish dates for the uncompleted portions of all network activities. SEE ALSO Backward Pass, Schedule Network Analysis
The amount of time that a schedule activity can be delayed without delaying the early start of any immediately following schedule activities. SEE ALSO Total Float (TF) Gantt Chart. SEE Bar Chart
A visual graphical display using lines and shapes to represent data values, such as project status or forecast information.
SEE Summary Activity
A fixed date imposed on a schedule activity or schedule milestone, usually in the form of a ‘‘start no earlier than’’ and ‘‘finish no later than’’ date.
Any item, whether internal or external to the project that is required by a process before that process proceeds. May be an output from a predecessor process.
Interrelated, interconnected, interlocked, or meshed components blended and unified into a functioning or unified whole.
The process of reviewing all change requests, approving changes, and controlling changes to deliverables and organizational process assets.
A modification of a logical relationship that directs a delay in the successor activity. For example, in a finish-to-start dependency with a ten-day lag, the successor activity cannot start until ten days after the predecessor activity has finished. SEEALSO Lead
In the critical path method, the latest possible point in time that a schedule activity may be completed based upon the schedule network logic, the project completion date, and any constraints assigned to the schedule activities without violating a schedule constraint or delaying the project completion date. The late finish dates are determined during the backward pass calculation of the project schedule network. SEE ALSO Activity Late Finish Date, Project Late Finish Date
In the critical path method, the latest possible point in time that a schedule activity may begin based upon the schedule network logic, the project completion date, and any constraints assigned to the schedule activities without violating a schedule constraint or delaying the project completion date. The late start dates are determined during the backward pass calculation of the project schedule network. SEE ALSO Activity Late Start Date, Project Late Start Date
A modification of a logical relationship that allows an acceleration of the successor activity. For example, in a finish-to-start dependency with a ten-day lead, the successor activity can start ten days before the predecessor activity has finished. A negative lead is equivalent to a positive lag. SEE ALSO Lag
The learning gained from the process of performing the project. Lessons learned may be identified at any point. Also considered a project record, to be included in the lessons learned knowledge base.
Support-type activity (e.g., seller or customer liaison, project cost accounting, project management, etc.), which does not produce definitive end products. It is generally characterized by a uniform rate of work performance over a period of time determined by the activities supported.
SEE Resource Leveling
SEE Network Logic
SEE Project Schedule Network Diagram
A dependency between two project schedule activities, or between a project schedule activity and a schedule milestone. The four possible types of logical relationships are: Finish-to-Start; Finish-to-Finish; Start-to-Start; and Start-to-Finish. SEE ALSO Precedence Relationship, Finish-to-Finish (FF), Finish-to-Start (FS), Start-to-Finish, and Start-to-Start
A summary-level project schedule that identifies the major deliverables and work breakdown structure components and key schedule milestones. SEE ALSO Milestone Schedule
The type of material used to store a document. Media consist of hard-copy bound material, hard-copy unbound material, soft-copy material, electronic material, firmware, and software.
A system of practices, techniques, procedures, and rules used by those who work in a discipline.
A significant point or event in the project. SEE ALSO Schedule Milestone
A summary-level schedule that identifies the major schedule milestones. SEE ALSO Master Schedule
The total number of work periods in calendar units assigned to perform the schedule activity, considering all of the variables that could affect performance, and is determined to be the most probable activity duration.
A schedule activity that has low total float. The concept of near-critical is equally applicable to a schedule activity or schedule network path. The limit below which total float is considered near critical is subject to expert judgment and varies from project to project.
SEE Project Schedule Network Diagram
SEE Schedule Network Analysis
The collection of schedule activity dependencies that makes up a project schedule network diagram.
Any continuous series of schedule activities connected with logical relationships in a project schedule network diagram.
One of the defining points of a schedule network; a junction point joined to some or all of the other dependency lines. SEE ALSO Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM) and Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)
A date or part of a date identified as a time for not performing work including designated holidays. Each date may be further divided into calendar units, such as shifts, hours, or even minutes that may be designated as the specific non-work period.
An activity with no predecessor, successor, or both. There should be only two activities/milestones in a schedule with open ends: project start and project completion.
The total number of work periods in calendar units assigned to perform the schedule activity, considering all of the variables that could affect performance, and is determined to be the shortest possible duration.
A group of persons organized for some purpose or to perform some type of work within an enterprise.
The activity duration originally assigned to a schedule activity and not updated as progress is reported on the activity. Typically used for comparison with actual duration and remaining duration when reporting schedule progress. SEE ALSO Activity Original Duration, Project Original Duration
A product, result, or service generated by a process. May be an input to a successor process.
An estimate, expressed as a percent, of the amount of work that has been completed on an activity or a work breakdown structure component. Performance Measurement Baseline. An approved integrated scope-schedule-cost plan for the project work against which project execution is compared to measure and manage performance. Technical and quality parameters may also be included. SEE ALSO Baseline
The total number of work periods in calendar units assigned to perform the schedule activity, considering all of the variables that could affect performance, and is determined to be the longest possible activity duration.
SEE Project Phase
The amount of work physically completed on the project or task. This may be different from the amount of effort or money expended on the project or task. Predetermined techniques of claiming physical work progress that were selected during project planning are used to credit earned value when work is partially complete at the time of progress reporting.
SEE Activity Original Duration and Project Original Duration
SEE Scheduled Finish Date
SEE Scheduled Start Date
A specific type of professional or management activity that contributes to the execution of a process and that may employ one or more techniques and tools.
A schedule network diagramming technique in which schedule activities are represented by boxes (or nodes). Schedule activities are graphically linked by one or more logical relationships to show the sequence in which the activities are to be performed. SEE ALSO Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM)
The term used in the precedence diagramming method for a logical relationship. In current usage, however, precedence relationship, logical relationship, and dependency are widely used interchangeably, regardless of the diagramming method used. SEE ALSO Logical Relationship
The schedule activity that determines when the logical successor activity can begin or end.
A series of steps followed in a regular definitive order to accomplish something.
A set of interrelated actions and activities performed to achieve a specified set of products, results, or services.
An artifact that is produced, is quantifiable, and can be either an end item in itself or a component item. Additional words for products are materiel and goods. Contrast with result and service. SEE ALSO Deliverable
The features and functions that characterize a product, service or result. SEE ALSO Scope
The documented narrative description of the product scope.
Continuously improving and detailing a plan as more detailed and specific information and more accurate estimates become available as the project progresses, and thereby producing more accurate and complete plans that result from the successive iterations of the planning process.
A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result.
The total number of work periods in calendar units between the project actual start date of the project and either the data date of the project schedule, if the project is in progress or the project actual finish date, if the project is complete. SEE ALSO Actual Duration
The point in time associated with the activity actual finish date of the last schedule activity in the project. SEE ALSO Actual Finish Date
The point in time associated with the activity actual start date of the first schedule activity in the project.
Multiple attributes associated with each unique project that can be included within the schedule model. Project attributes include, but may not be limited to project identifier, project name, project description, project scope statement, project calendar, and assigned resource calendars.
The total number of work periods in calendar units needed to execute the approved project schedule baseline* for the project.
The point in time associated with the completion of the last schedule activity in an approved project schedule baseline*. SEE ALSO Project Current Finish Date
The point in time associated with the beginning of the first schedule activity in an approved project schedule baseline*. SEE ALSO Project Current Start Date
The point in time set by the project early start date as determined by a schedule network analysis or as established by a project start constraint. Sometimes called project start date.
A calendar of working days or shifts that establishes those dates on which schedule activities are worked and nonworking days that determine those dates on which schedule activities are idle. Typically defines holidays, weekends, and shift hours. SEE ALSO Resource Calendar and Activity Calendar
SEE Project End Date
The estimated cost* for the entire project.
The longest schedule network path from the project start date or the current project data date to the project finish date. SEE ALSO Critical Path
The current estimate of the point in time when the last schedule activity in the project will be completed, where the estimate reflects any reported work progress. SEEALSO Current Finish Date, Project Scheduled Finish Date, and Project Baseline Finish Date
The current estimate of the point in time when the first schedule activity in the project will begin, where the estimate reflects any reported work progress. SEE ALSO Current Start Date, Project Scheduled Start Date, and Project Baseline Start Date
Documented narrative summary of the project scope statement.
The total number of work periods in calendar units between the project early start date and the project early finish date. SEE ALSO Duration (DU or DUR)
An estimate, expressed as the percentage that the project actual duration is of the project total duration for a project that has work in progress.
A quantifiable deviation, departure, or divergence away from a given duration for a project.
The earliest possible point in time associated with the completion of the last schedule activity of the project. SEE ALSO Early Finish Date
The earliest possible point in time associated with the beginning of the first schedule activity of the project. SEE ALSO Early Start Date
The point in time set by the project late finish date as determined by a schedule network analysis or as established by a project finish constraint. Sometimes called project completion date.
A limitation or restraint placed on the project late finish date that affects when the project must finish and is usually in the form of a fixed imposed date.
A point in time associated with the completion of the last schedule activity in a project. Usually qualified by one of the following: actual, baseline, current, early, late, scheduled, or target. SEE ALSO Finish Date
A quantifiable deviation, departure, or divergence from a known schedule baseline finish date or project end date. May be expressed as either a percentage or number of work periods.
A short unique numeric or text identification assigned to each project to differentiate a particular project from other projects in a program.
The latest possible point in time associated with the completion of the last schedule activity of the project.
The latest possible point in time associated with the beginning of the first schedule activity of the project.
A formal, approved document that defines how the project is executed, monitored, and controlled. It may be summary or detailed and may be composed of one or more subsidiary management plans and other planning documents.
A class of computer software applications specifically designed to aid the project management team with planning, monitoring, and controlling the project, including: cost estimating, scheduling, communications, collaboration, configuration management, document control, records management, and risk analysis.
The members of the project team who are directly involved in project management activities. On some smaller projects, the project management team may include virtually all of the project team members.
The person assigned by the performing organization to achieve the project objectives.
A short phrase or label for each project, used in conjunction with the project identifier to differentiate a particular project from other projects in a program. Sometimes also known as project title.
The initial estimate of the total number of work periods in calendar units needed to complete a project. Typically determined from the initial longest network path though the project.
A collection of logically related project activities, usually culminating in the completion of a major deliverable. Project phases (also called phases) are mainly completed sequentially, but can overlap in some project situations. Phases can be subdivided into subphases and then components; this hierarchy, if the project or portions of the project are divided into phases, is contained in the work breakdown structure. A project phase is a component of a project life cycle. A project phase is not a project management process group.
An estimate, expressed as a percent, of the amount of work that has been completed on the project, measured in terms of physical work progress.
SEE Project Scheduled Finish Date
SEE Project Scheduled Start Date
The total number of work periods in calendar units, between the data date of the project schedule and the project early finish date of a project that has at least one activity actual start date. This represents the time needed to complete a project where the work is in progress. SEE ALSO Remaining Duration
The planned dates for performing schedule activities and the planned dates for meeting schedule milestones. This term is also used with a modifier, such as early, late, current, baseline, resource limited, milestone, or target to identify various instances of the project schedule. SEE ALSO, schedule model.
Any schematic display of the logical relationships among the project schedule activities. Always drawn from left to right to reflect project work chronology.
The point in time when work was scheduled to complete on a project. The project scheduled finish date is normally within the range of dates delimited by the project early finish date and the project late finish date. It may reflect finish resource leveling of scarce resources. Sometimes called project planned finish date. SEE ALSO Project Current Finish Date, Scheduled Finish Date
The point in time when work was scheduled to begin on the project. The project scheduled start date is normally within the range of dates delimited by the project early start date and the project late start date. It may reflect start resource leveling of scarce resources. Sometimes called project planned start date. SEE ALSO Project Current Start Date, Scheduled Start Date
The work that must be performed to deliver a product, service, or result with the specified features and functions. SEE ALSO Scope
The narrative description of the project scope, including major deliverables, project objectives, project assumptions, project constraints, and a statement of work, that provides a documented basis for making future project decisions and for confirming or developing a common understanding of project scope among the stakeholders. The definition of the project scope – what needs to be accomplished.
SEE Sponsor
SEE Stakeholder
A limitation or restraint placed on the project early start date that affects when the project must start and is usually in the form of a fixed imposed date.
A point in time associated with the beginning of the first schedule activity in a project. Usually qualified by one of the following: actual, baseline, current, early, late, scheduled, or target. SEE ALSO Start Date
A quantifiable deviation, departure, or divergence away from a known project target start date or project target finish date.
The estimated total number of work periods in calendar units, needed to complete the project as determined by a specific project target schedule.
The scheduler-selected point in time established by schedule network analysis for completion of a specific version of the project schedule.
The scheduler-selected point in time established by schedule network analysis for beginning a specific version of the project schedule.
All the project team members, including the project management team, the project manager and, for some projects, the project sponsor.
The persons who report either directly or indirectly to the project manager, and who are responsible for performing project work as a regular part of their assigned duties.
Project Time Management includes the processes required to accomplish timely completion of the project. The Project Time Management processes include activity definition, activity sequencing, activity resource estimating, activity duration estimating, schedule development, and schedule control.
SEE Project Name
The total number of work periods in calendar units to complete a project. For a project in progress, it includes the project actual duration plus the project remaining duration.
SEE Work
A logical relationship line drawn within a project schedule network diagram from one schedule activity to one or more other schedule activities indicating the type of logical relationship by the relative position of the beginning and end points of the line.
The time in calendar units, (a) equal to the Original Duration for an activity that has not started or (b) between the data date of the project schedule and the finish date of a schedule activity that has an actual start date. This represents the time needed to complete a schedule activity where the work is in progress. SEE ALSO Activity Remaining Duration, Project Remaining Duration
A vertical display area in the document body representing one data component or piece of information, such as a project group, activity group, or resource group.
A short text description of a data component in the report.
Horizontal and vertical lines within a document corresponding to data components, such as timescale units or rows in a bar chart.
A horizontal display area in the document body representing one data component or piece of information, such as an activity group or resource group.
A display formatted in report rows and report columns, such as a document that presents time-scaled columnar schedule-related information.
A condition or capability that must be met or possessed by a system, product, service, result, or component to satisfy a contract, standard, specification, or other formally
Requirements include the quantified and documented needs, wants, and expectations of the sponsor, customer, and other stakeholders.
Skilled human resources (specific disciplines either individually or in crews or teams), equipment, services, supplies, commodities, budgets, or funds. Resource Application. The percent of the resource duration that the assigned resource is estimated to apply to the work of the schedule activity. Resource Assignment. The linkage of one or more resources to a schedule activity and identification of the amount of each resource that is needed to accomplish the work on that schedule activity.
Multiple attributes associated with each resource that can be included within the resource library. Resource attributes include resource identifier, resource name, resource type, resource availability, resource rate, resource code, constraints, and assumptions.
The dates and number of work periods in calendar units that a given resource is available according to the appropriate resource calendar.
A calendar of working days and nonworking days that determines those dates on which each specific resource is idle or can be active. Typically defines resource specific holidays and resource availability periods. SEE ALSO Calendar Library, Project Calendar and Activity Calendar
SEE Resource-Limited Schedule
SEE Resource Library
The number of work periods in calendar units the assigned resource is estimated to spend on executing the work of the schedule activity.
A project team member selected set of resources sharing some common resource attribute that allows those resources to be reported or displayed separately such as being grouped in a graphic display.
A short unique numeric or text identification assigned to each specific resource to differentiate that resource from other resources. Resource identifiers are typically unique within any one project.
The number of calendar units a resource is to wait after the activity start date before beginning work on the schedule activity. Resource Leveling (Technique). Any form of schedule network analysis in which scheduling decisions (start and finish dates) are driven by resource constraints (e.g., limited resource availability or difficult-to-manage changes in resource availability levels). ALSO Resource- Limited Schedule and Schedule Network Analysis
A documented tabulation containing the complete list, including resource attributes, of all resources that can be assigned to project activities.* Also known as a resource dictionary.
A project schedule whose schedule activity, scheduled start dates and scheduled finish dates reflect expected resource availability. A resource-limited schedule does not have any early or late start or finish dates. The resource-limited schedule total float is determined by calculating the difference between the critical path method late finish date and the resource-limited scheduled finish date. Sometimes called resourceconstrained schedule. SEE ALSO Resource Leveling
A short phrase or label for each resource used in conjunction with a resource identifier to differentiate that resource from other resources. The resource name normally differentiates a resource by type, role, or individual.
SEE Activity Resource Estimating
The unit cost rate assigned to a specific resource, including known rate escalations.
A unique designation that differentiates a resource by skills, capabilities or other attributes.
An output from performing project management processes and activities. Results include outcomes (e.g., integrated systems, revised process, restructured organization, tests, trained personnel, etc.) and documents (e.g., policies, plans, studies, procedures, specifications, reports, etc.). Contrast with product and service. SEE ALSO Deliverable
A defined function to be performed by a project team member, such as testing, filing, inspecting, coding.
SEE Project Schedule and SEE ALSO Schedule Model
A discrete scheduled component of work performed during the course of a
A schedule activity normally has an estimated duration, an estimated cost, and estimated resource requirements. Schedule activities are connected to other schedule activities or schedule milestones with logical relationships, and are decomposed from work packages. SEE ALSO Activity
SEE Schedule Network Analysis
Shortening the project schedule duration without reducing the project scope. SEE ALSO Crashing and Fast Tracking
The process of controlling changes to the project schedule.
The process of analyzing schedule activity sequences, schedule activity durations, resource requirements, and schedule constraints to create the project schedule.
A project team specified rule for the relative granularity of schedule activities in the overall schedule model.
A significant event in the project schedule, such as an event restraining future work or marking the completion of a major deliverable. A schedule milestone has zero duration. Sometimes called a milestone activity. SEE ALSO Milestone
A dynamic representation of the project’s plan for executing the project’s activities developed by the project team’s applying the scheduling method to a scheduling tool using project specific data such as activity lists and activity attributes. The schedule model can produce critical paths and instances of project schedules, as well as resource profiles, activity assignments, records of accomplishments, etc. and can provide timebased forecasts, by reacting to inputs and adjustments made throughout the project’s life cycle. (Scheduling Method plus Scheduling Tool plus Project Specific Data equal Schedule Model) SEE ALSO Project Schedule
The technique of identifying early and late start dates, as well as early and late finish dates, for the uncompleted portions of project schedule activities. SEE ALSO Backward Pass, Critical Path Method, Critical Chain Method, and Resource Leveling
A measure of schedule efficiency on a project. It is the ratio of earned value (EV) to planned value (PV). The SPI EV divided by PV. An SPI equal to or greater than one indicates a favorable condition and a value of less than one indicates an unfavorable condition. SEE ALSO Earned Value Technique (EVT) Schedule Variance (SV). A measure of schedule performance on a project. It is the algebraic difference between the earned value (EV) and the planned value (PV). SV EV minus PV. SEE ALSO Earned Value Technique (EVT)
The point in time when work was scheduled to finish on a schedule activity. The scheduled finish date is normally within the range of dates delimited by the early finish date and the late finish date. It may reflect resource leveling of scarce resources. Sometimes called planned finish date. SEE ALSO Current Finish Date, Activity Scheduled Finish Date, Project Scheduled Finish Date
The point in time when work was scheduled to start on a schedule activity. The scheduled start date is normally within the range of dates delimited by the early start date and the late start date. It may reflect resource leveling of scarce resources. Sometimes called planned start date. SEE ALSO Current Start Date, Activity Scheduled Start Date, Project Scheduled Start Date
A system of practices, techniques, procedures and rules used by project scheduling schedulers. This methodology can be performed either manually or with project management software specifically used for scheduling.
A tool which provides schedule component names, definitions, structural relationships, and formats that support the application of a scheduling method.
The sum of the products, services, and results to be provided as a project. SEE ALSO Project Scope and Product Scope.
Useful work performed that does not produce a tangible product or result, such as performing any of the business functions supporting production or distribution. Contrast with product and result. SEE ALSO Deliverable
SEE Total Float (TF) and Free Float (FF)
A document that specifies, in a complete, precise, verifiable manner, the requirements, design, behavior, or other characteristics of a system, component, product, result, or service and, often, the procedures for determining whether these provisions have been satisfied. Examples are: requirement specification, design specification, product specification, and test specification. Specified Critical Path. The longest sequence of schedule activities in a project team member specified schedule network path. SEE ALSO Critical Path
The person or group that provides the financial resources, in cash or in kind, for the project.
Person or organization (e.g., customer, sponsor, performing organization, or the public) that is actively involved in the project, or whose interests may be positively or negatively affected by execution or completion of the project. A stakeholder may also exert influence over the project and its deliverables.
A document established by consensus and approved by a recognized body that provides rules, guidelines, or characteristics for activities or their results, for common and repeated use, aimed at the achievement of the optimum degree of order in a given context.
A point in time associated with a schedule activity’s start, usually qualified by one of the following: actual, planned, estimated, scheduled, early, late, target, baseline, or current. SEE ALSO Activity Start Date, Project Start Date
A schedule constraint placed on the schedule activity that affects when a schedule activity can be scheduled and is usually in the form of a fixed imposed date. A Start Not Earlier Than constraint prevents the schedule activity from being scheduled to start earlier than the imposed date.
A schedule constraint placed on the schedule activity that affects when a schedule activity can be scheduled and is usually in the form of a fixed imposed date. A Start Not Later Than constraint prevents the schedule activity from being scheduled to start later than the imposed date.
A schedule constraint placed on the schedule activity that affects when a schedule activity can be scheduled and is usually in the form of a fixed imposed date. A Start On constraint requires the schedule activity to start on a specific date.
The logical relationship where completion of the successor schedule activity is dependent upon the initiation of the predecessor schedule activity. SEE ALSO Logical Relationship
The logical relationship where initiation of the work of the successor schedule activity depends upon the initiation of the work of the predecessor schedule activity. SEE ALSO Logical Relationship
A narrative description of products, services, or results to be supplied.
A term whose meaning for status data reporting varies by the brand of project management software used for scheduling, where in some systems the status date is included in the past and in some systems the status date is in the future. SEE ALSO either Data Date or Time-Now Date
A subdivision (fragment) of a project schedule network diagram, usually representing a subproject or a work package. Often used to illustrate or study some potential or proposed schedule condition, such as changes in preferential schedule logic or project scope. SEE ALSO Summary Activity
A subdivision of a phase.
A smaller portion of the overall project created when a project is subdivided into more manageable components or pieces. Subprojects are usually represented in the work breakdown structure. A subproject can be referred to as a project, managed as a project, and acquired from a seller. May be referred to as a subnetwork in a project schedule network diagram. SEE ALSO Summary Activity
The point when the schedule network logic and deliverable requirements of the schedule activity are satisfied and the successor activities can begin.
SEE Successor Activity
The schedule activity that follows a predecessor activity, as determined by their logical relationship.
A group of related schedule activities aggregated at some summary level, and displayed/reported as a single activity at that summary level. SEE ALSO Subproject and Subnetwork
An integrated set of regularly interacting or interdependent components created to accomplish a defined objective, with defined and maintained relationships among its components, and the whole producing or operating better than the simple sum of its components. Systems may be either physically process based or management process based, or more commonly a combination of both. Systems for project management are composed of project management processes, techniques, methodologies, and tools operated by the project management team.
SEE Activity Target Duration and Project Target Duration
SEE Activity Target Finish Date and Project Target Finish Date
A schedule adopted for comparison purposes during schedule network analysis, which can be different from the baseline schedule. SEE ALSO Baseline
SEE Activity Target Start Date and Project Target Start Date
A term for work whose meaning and placement within a structured plan for project work varies by the application area, industry, and brand of project management software.
SEE Project Team Members
A defined systematic procedure employed by a human resource to perform an activity to produce a product or result or deliver a service, and that may employ one or more tools.
A partially complete document in a predefined format that provides a defined structure for collecting, organizing and presenting information and data. Templates are often based upon documents created during prior projects. Templates can reduce the effort needed to perform work and increase the consistency of results.
An analytical technique that uses three cost or duration estimates to represent the optimistic, most likely, and pessimistic scenarios. This technique is applied to improve the accuracy of the estimates of cost or duration when the underlying activity or cost component is uncertain.
SEE Data Date
A graduated marking of linear time, which displays time in specific units such as hours, days, weeks, months, quarters, or years. Timescales can show more than one unit of time. Usually shown above or below the data components within a document or electronic graphical display.
Something tangible, such as a template or software program, used in performing an activity to produce a product or result.
SEE Activity Total Duration and Project Total Duration
The total amount of time that a schedule activity may be delayed from its activity early start date or activity early finish date without delaying the project end date, or violating a schedule constraint. Calculated using the critical path method technique and determining the difference between the early finish dates and late finish dates. SEE ALSO Float, Free Float (FF)
A designation of the type of quantity being measured, such as work-hours, cubic yards, or lines of code.
The person or organization that will use the project’s product or service. SEEALSO Customer
A quantifiable deviation, departure, or divergence away from a known baseline or expected value.
A predetermined range of normal outcomes that is determined during the planning process and sets the boundaries within which the team practices management by exception.
Sustained physical or mental effort, exertion, or exercise of skill to overcome obstacles and achieve an objective.
A deliverable-oriented hierarchical decomposition of the work to be executed by the project team to accomplish the project objectives and create the required deliverables. It organizes and defines the total scope of the project. Each descending level represents an increasingly detailed definition of the project work. The WBS is decomposed into work packages. The deliverable orientation of the hierarchy includes both internal and external deliverables. SEE ALSO Work Package, Control Account (CA), and Contract Work Breakdown Structure (CWBS) Work Breakdown Structure Component. An entry in the work breakdown structure that can be at any level.
A short unique numeric or text identification assigned to each work breakdown structure (WBS) element or component to differentiate a particular WBS element from other WBS elements. The WBS Element Identifier is typically unique within any complete work breakdown structure.
A deliverable or project work component at the lowest level of each branch of the work breakdown structure. The work package includes the schedule activities and schedule milestones required to complete the work package deliverable or project work component. SEE ALSO Control Account (CA)
Information and data, on the status of the project schedule activities being performed to accomplish the project work, collected as part of the direct and manage project execution processes. Information includes: status of deliverables; implementation status for change requests, corrective actions, preventive actions, and defect repairs; forecasted estimates to complete; reported percent of work physically completed; achieved value of technical performance measures; start and finish dates of schedule activities.
A date or part of a date identified as a time for performing work. Each date may be further divided into calendar units, such as shifts, hours, or even minutes that may be designated as the specific work period.
A response to a negative risk that has occurred. Distinguished from contingency plan in that a workaround is not planned in advance of the occurrence of the risk event.


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